WIDS 1921 YEAR BOOK, page 69-75
Edward Muybridge, of
After Muybridge showed the way, C. Francis Jenkins, of Washington D. C., on
Not only is
The first moving pictures to be thrown upon a screen were made in the summer of 1877, on the
The pictures, which showed a white horse running against a specially constructed black fence as a background, were made by a battery of 24 cameras, placed in a row, the shutters of which were operated by threads placed across the track at intervals and snapped by the horse as it galloped.
The projection machine, which threw these moving pictures on a screen, was also invented by Edward Muybridge. The worlds first projection of moving pictures on a screen also took place in
This studio stood until a few years ago, on the site of Governor Stanfords racecourse at
Previous to Edward Muybridges invention of the Zoopraxiscope, which threw pictures on a screen by means of an oxy-acetylene light set up with a condensing lens, there were no projection machines. Muybridges projection machine consisted of a large glass disk with reproductions of photographs set along its margin. Each photograph showed a slight progression in movement.
Moving photographic prints had been shown, to one person at a time, in a stereoscope or peep-hole machine in 1860 by Dr. Sellers of
Muybridges first audience consisted of more than a hundred wealthy
Before he showed his first moving pictures to the worlds first moving picture audience, Muybridge obviated the blurring of his pictures when they were rapidly revolved before the lens by placing before the pictures another metal disc.
When the two discs were revolved in opposite directions, apertures in the metal disc coinciding with the glass discs pictures completely gave the idea of motion by reason of the persistence of vision.
Muybridge of California was the inventor of the modern projection machine. It remained for others to substitute a strip of film for the revolving glass disc and to perfect Muybridges primitive shutter.
Several years later, the grandfather of moving pictures, on
Even in 1893, at the Worlds Fair in
It cannot be contested that Muybridge of California was the first maker of moving pictures to throw them upon a screen. Until Muybridge came only one person at a time could view the stereoscopic peep shows. Muybridge gave the worlds first screen exhibition to a number of persons.
Muybridges moving pictures and projection machine were awarded honors in
Upon Muybridges return to
Muybridge also took the first instantaneous photographs in history. Many of them were made, to the astonishment of the worlds photographers at that time, at an exposure of one six-thousandths part of a second. Even today there are few shutters which can equal the speed of the Muybridge shutter of 1882.
Here are some of the earliest moving pictures made by Muybridge in
Leland Stanford Athletes in Action.
The Movements of the Raccoon.
The Movements of the Baboon.
The Ostrich Farms of
The Movements of the Sloth.
How a Hogs Back Wrinkles.
The Beating of a Dogs Heart.
In making The Beating of a Dogs Heart, Mr. Muybridges camera was placed close to the chest of the animal, which had been anestheticized and cut open by Dr. Edward Reichert. Muybridge was the first cinematographer to throw scientific pictures on a screen.
To the Chicago World's Fair in 1893 Muybridge brought 20,000 original photographs on revolving glass plates and before tens of thousands of people during that summer projected his moving pictures of animal movements.
Before special audiences of scientific men he showed views of persons afflicted with locomotor ataxia, lateral sclerosis and kindred diseases.
Soon afterward Muybridge of
He was the first man to make instantaneous photographs, the first to project moving pictures on a screen so that the idea of continuity of motion might be conveyed to the observer. True, the motion was crude, jerky and spasmodic but so were moving pictures even as late as 1906.
Muybridge began his work to prove to Governor Stanford that a racing horse going at a certain rate of speed was at successive points in his stride clear of support from the ground, but he finished by giving the world its first moving pictures on a screen.
T. S. TALLY, FIRST LOS ANGELES EXHIBITOR
Thomas S. Tally, the present owner of Tallys Broadway Theater,
The picture was a 300-foot release, The Black Diamond Express. Mr. Tally exhibited it himself with an Edison Vitastope on a screen in the rear of his phonograph parlor which was then located at
The projection was made through a tunnel of wood and black canvas which occupied the center of Mr. Tallys phonograph shop, which Mr. Tally did not wish to darken during the screening for fear that prospective talking machine purchasers might be frightened away. The picture was viewed from the rear of the shop, which had been made over into an auditorium with chairs for 300 people.
IN THE SULTANS POWER"
FIRST MOVING PICTURE MADE IN
The first moving picture scenes for a photo-drama to be filmed in
The first moving picture to be filmed in its entirety in
Director Boggs, who some months later was killed by a Japanese religious fanatic, was accompanied west by James L. McGee, who is still with the Selig Company; by James Crosby, manager of the company; Harry Todd, for many subsequent years with Essanay; Gene Ward and Mrs. Boggs, who was known professionally as May Hosmer.
In the Sultans Power was made in the first
NEW YORK MOTION PICTURE COMPANY
The New York Motion Picture Corp. was the next company to send a unit to the coast. This company reached
The company was under the direction of Charles K. French. Fred Balshofer was Mr. Frenchs cameraman. The company had produced eighteen single reel Bison brand pictures in
The original Los Angeles Bison Company consisted of Art Acord, James Youngdeer, Princess Red Wing, Barney Sherry, Charles Avery, Jule Darrell, Evelyn Graham, Bill Gibbons, Fred Balshofer, Buster Edmonds, Phyllis Daniels, Marion Sayres, Madeline West, William Daniels, Margaret Favor, Edna Maison, Jess McGraw, George Gebhardt, Jack Conway, Howard Davies, Charles Inslee, E. H. Allen, Milt Brown, Frank Montgomery and Messrs. Smyth, Edmonds, Hartigan and Stanley.
The first Bison pictures were made in Edendale on the site of the Keystone studio, a block away from the Edendale studio of the Selig company. The studio consisted only of a horse corral and a stage. The Bison company made only western pictures.
For the same ground that the Sennett organization occupies today Mr. French paid $40 a month rent. His stage occupied a space 18x18 feet. Some of the early productions were made for as low as $112 a picture. Mr. French, who was general manager, director, secretary and treasurer of the organization, was limited to $300 on a picture, and in no case was this sum exceeded.
The actors and actresses in stock, such as Sherry, Youngdeer and a few others, received $35 a week. Extras got $5 a day. Cowboys were paid $3 a day.
Under normal conditions the old Bison company turned out a one-reel picture in two days and sometimes finished a picture between sun-up and sun-down. From November, 1909 to
THIRD PACIFIC COAST ARRIVAL
The third company to cone to
The first picture made was Ramona, which because of the
The original Los Angeles Biograph company consisted of General Manager Hammer, D.
ESSANAY COMES TO COAST IN OCTOBER, 1910
Next to arrive in
KALEM COMES WEST
In 1911, P. C. Hartigan opened a Kalem studio at
NESTOR OPENS FIRST
David Horsleys Nestor Company, it is generally agreed, was the first to open a studio in
Later Mr. Horsley brought to
VITAGRAPH TREKS COASTWARD
Right on the heels of the Nestor company came the Vitagraph unit. The Vitagraph players left
The Vitagraph company consisted of Rollin S. Sturgeon, director; Charles Bennett, Anne Schaefer, Tom Fortune, Robert J. Thornby, Helen Case, Tom Powers, Mr. and Mrs. Fred Burns, Robert Burns, Walter Stradling, cameraman; and Alfred Ziegler, assistant cameraman.
Mr. and Mrs. William T. Rock, who had been on the coast for some time, welcomed the Vitagraph players and brought them to the studio which they had engaged on
UNIVERSAL MAKES ITS WESTERN DEBUT
Universal may be said to have established itself on the coast when it took over the Nestor studio on
In August, 1912, William H. Swanson, then treasurer of Universal, leased 1,299 acres, now known as the back ranch at the end of
Preparations for this move began in May, 1913, and on
OTHER COMPANIES FLOCK TO
In September, 1912, Mack Sennett and a small company, including Mabel Normand and Ford Sterling, which had been organized on
Famous Players began work in
James Youngdeer made pictures for Pathe in 1912; Thanhouser opened a plant late in the same year; Lubin sent a company west under Capt. Wilbert Melville in 1913, and the Balboa and Albuquerque companies also commenced operations about the same time. In the latter part of 1913 Bosworth, Inc., commenced making pictures.
When the Great War broke out the pioneer days had passed. The studios were well established. System had replaced haphazard methods of production. The days of crude sets and cruder acting were gone. Photography and direction had improved marvelously. The
At the present day there are 49 studios in and around